When military strategist and US Air Force pilot John Boyd first developed the OODA loop in the mid-twentieth century to maneuver warfare, little did he know the framework would become one of the most popular decision-making tools in the world, deployed by individuals and organizations across the globe. Boyd’s biographer Robert Coram describes the OODA loop as a “time-based theory of conflict” in his book Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War. Let’s find out what an OODA loop is and how it facilitates informed decision-making.

  1. What Is OODA Loop?

  2. Steps Of OODA Loop Model

  3. Demonstrate Balanced Judgment

What Is OODA Loop?


Also known as Boyd’s Cycle, an OODA loop refers to a decision-making model that helps individuals and organizations sift through information, contextualize it and arrive at a sound decision. OODA is an acronym for the four stages that make up the OODA cycle: observe, orient, decide, act. Because it’s an iterative model that involves repetition of the four stages, OODA also leaves scope for changes to be made to a decision as the information is updated in each cycle.

Organizations that can utilize and progress through the OODA loop decision-making model the fastest gain a competitive edge in the market. Repeatedly deploying OODA helps them read, analyze and react to evolving business conditions much quicker than their competitors. However, it’s important to keep business plans flexible enough to allow modifications to be made to accommodate the latest available data through each iteration of the OODA cycle.

Steps Of OODA Loop Model


Boyd said human decision-making takes place through four stages: observe, orient, decide, act, which he dubbed as the four stages of the OODA loop decision-making model. These four parts make up a process that’s repeated in a loop until a problem is solved. Let’s look at each part of OODA in detail:

1. Observe (O)

The key to making effective decisions is gathering a thorough knowledge of the immediate circumstances surrounding a problem. The first step of the OODA loop model, therefore, involves observing and collecting as much information as possible on the problem at hand. In a business landscape, such information can include market scenarios, factors affecting the internal and external environment, key stakeholders and competitors, available resources and the current state of the organization. However, the observation stage goes beyond merely gathering information. It also includes contextualizing the information so that it’s relevant to the big picture or overall objective.


2. Orient (O)

Often considered to be the most important step in OODA, orientation is the second stage of the OODA loop model. As Boyd said, “Orientation isn’t just a state you’re in; it’s a process. You’re always orienting.” This step involves analyzing the information gathered in the previous step and familiarizing oneself with any barriers such as bias or errors in judgment that might hinder the progress of the other stages of the OODA loop. In other words, orientation is acquainting yourself with the immediate reality of your situation, keeping bias at bay. Boyd identified cultural traditions, genetic heritage and past experiences as some of the factors that can influence the orientation phase.


3. Decide (D)

The third step of the OODA loop model involves arriving at a decision or determining which path to take based on the information gathered and analyzed in the previous two steps. For organizations, this might mean holding meetings to carve out a roadmap that decides the future course of action. Boyd referred to this step as the hypothesis stage. After a decision has been reached, it’s essential to examine its viability by putting it to action in the next step.


4. Act (A)

The last step of the OODA loop model focuses on acting out the decision. The action phase in the OODA cycle serves as a means to test the effectiveness of the path chosen in the previous stage. The results of this action yield feedback and learnings that lay the groundwork for the next OODA cycle, passing through all the four stages of OODA once again.

The OODA loop decision-making model is especially useful to make decisions in a time crunch, considering that Boyd intended fighter pilots to use it to make decisions in a matter of seconds. Today, the OODA loop model is widely used across a range of sectors such as cybersecurity, marketing and information technology. Organizations aim to complete the four steps of the OODA cycle—observe, orient, decide, act—as fast as possible to minimize their reaction time in critical situations and stay one step ahead of the competition.

Demonstrate Balanced Judgment


The OODA loop helps you take in information, reflect on it, analyze consequences, keep your biases in check and make informed decisions. Here’s where Harappa’s Making Decisions course can help. It equips you with the tools to process, reflect and consider multiple perspectives for informed decision-making. Frameworks such as the Good Decision Process help you scrutinize situations before arriving at smart decisions, while the Uncertainty Toolkit offers you a mental model to deal with uncertainty while making decisions.

You’re able to avoid common pitfalls such as biases and peer pressure that can lead to poor decision-making, assess implications by prioritizing and making tradeoffs and make timely and sound decisions aligned with organizational interests. Let’s demonstrate balanced judgment in crunch situations and impactfully communicate the rationale of decisions. Sign up today for Harappa’s Making Decisions course!

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