The shift in traditional classroom learning brought on by the global pandemic has been in the works for many years. Now that we are more than a year into the pandemic, remote learning has become the norm. Online classrooms with students on Zoom video with their faculty are no longer a novelty.

Keeping with this change and the speed and agility with which everyone has acclimatized themselves, there’s a pressing need for better, well-rounded and improved training models. Training models are part of instructional design. It’s the process of creating instruction material for different training needs. Many organizations invest in training models for employees for their on-the-job development. Training isn’t just limited to students after all.

For your institution, it’s important to adopt effective and robust training models so your faculty can tap into their cohort’s potential. Identifying what works—and what doesn’t—will help future students familiarize themselves with improved online classrooms.

Discover a variety of widely-known training and development models and theories for your institutional needs. Prepare your faculty with the right skills and insight to build customized training models based on specific and targeted learner needs.


  1. What Is Instructional Design?

  2. Different Training And Development Models And Theories

  3. Prepare Your Faculty For The Now


What Is Instructional Design?


Analyzing learning needs before the program even starts has become a step in the learning process for most organizations—professional or educational. It’s important for trainers or teachers to understand what the cohort needs, their skills and abilities and their weaknesses. This knowledge is what helps them curate and establish different training models.

Instructional design includes every step that’s part of creating a learning or training model for different cohorts. From assessing learner strengths and improvement areas to their attitudes and personalities toward the material, instructional design is an all-encompassing discipline.

The purpose of instructional design is to streamline and simplify the learning process. It helps learners retain more information, participate willingly and give them a memorable experience. Let’s discover the different types of training models used by trainers.


Different Training And Development Models And Theories


There are several types of training models that may be applied based on specific institutional or classroom needs. The ever-evolving classroom, now online, changes at lightning speed. Today, students might need a more hands-on teaching style. Tomorrow, they’ll be investing their time in self-directed or self-motivated learning. Based on what your institution needs, you can train your faculty in several types of training models. They need to list the learning objectives and decide which path best leads to the goal. A storyboard is an effective way to follow a learning trajectory from concept to outcome. Trainers can even do a simulation or a beta version to test the training model out before making it official.

Here are some of the commonly used training models for trainers and teachers to implement instructional design:


1. ADDIE Model

ADDIE stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implementation and Evaluate. It’s a five-step training model for students that helps trainers capture accurate learning objectives. A popular training model for educational needs, the ADDIE model leads to robust and effective training material. First, the trainer analyzes the learner or cohort’s learning needs, skills and knowledge to understand the ultimate objectives and goals of the training sessions. For instance, in a classroom, faculty can assess what their students need with surveys, courses or activities to help students engage.

Pre-session activities help offer answers to questions about the class strengths and abilities, interests and areas of improvement. This helps trainers design and develop a sound training module. Once rolled out, they test whether the training material works in the evaluation stage. 


2. Bloom’s Taxonomy

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom developed Bloom’s taxonomy as a means to stack different levels of cognitive learning. There are six steps in the process: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create. Each of these steps corresponds to a slightly different nomenclature: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

Knowledge is the ability to recall information, facts and data without the requisite understanding of their application. Comprehension is the understanding of this information and data by organizing knowledge in a coherent manner. Summarization is part of comprehension. Application is to apply the acquired information and knowledge, analysis is the examination and deconstruction of information to identify parts as a whole. The final two steps, synthesis and evaluation, involve building a pattern with distinct aspects and understanding its validity.


3. Merrill’s Principles Of Instruction

A well-rounded training module, Merrill’s Principles of Instruction takes a task-centered approach to learning. The first step is Activation to accelerate knowledge with learning material familiar to the learner so they can build on their experience. The second step is Demonstration, which requires multiple formats to share information such as video, audio and text to make learning stick. Application is the third principle of learning in this model. It emphasizes the importance of application in the learning process.

If learners can apply their knowledge, they’ll likely retain information for longer, making them self- sufficient. The final step in the process is Integration. This is the most important step, which also leads to the fulfillment of the learning objective. In this, learners can finally apply their knowledge to real-world situations.


4. Gagne’s Nine Events Of Instructions

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instructions are exhaustive steps in the learning process that begin with gaining the student’s attention with intriguing questions, etc. It’s an inclusive process that involves the student at each stage. The second step is to inform the students of the training’s learning objectives. This is followed by asking them to remember specific knowledge based on past experiences. The next steps are to give them access to simplified learning material and learning guidance in the form of case studies, infographics and videos.

Learners will learn to internalize this newly-acquired knowledge with engaging activities and participation. An important aspect of this process is providing feedback to ensure they’re on the right path. Evaluating the outcomes and assessing whether they’ve been achieved are the final steps in these nine events.


5. Kemp Design Model

The Kemp design model also has nine aspects that are cyclical, not following a specific line of events. This design and training model is built on the premise that designing is continuous and requires regular modifications. The nine elements that the Kemp design model is built on are identifying learning goals, understanding the cohort to recognize specific needs and whether their tasks align with the relevant course material. Sharing information about the instructional objectives is an essential part of this model.

The content is structured specifically for the purpose of the learning objectives. Learners are encouraged to immerse themselves in the material for complete comprehension. Mode of delivery—whether video or audio or image—is determined based on learner response. Evaluation helps trainers and teachers determine learner progress, assess roadblocks (if any) and help them achieve their goals. Finally, additional resources further their learning objectives.


6. The Kirkpatrick Training Model

The Kirkpatrick training model is used to assess the results of a training session. Primarily used in professional contexts, it’s a great way to assess your faculty’s proficiencies. Teachers can even use this model to get feedback from their students. The model includes four levels: reaction, learning, behavior and results.

The first step is to judge the reaction or response from learners—be it students or teachers. The second is to understand the amount of learning that took place as a result of the training material—whether it led to skill development. The third is behavior or the real-life application of the training material—which is the ultimate goal. As a whole, the final step determines whether the learning objectives have been met. This helps institutions improve training practices in the future. 


The training model you select should be based on cohort size, learning objectives, available resources, training needs and outcomes. The essential thing is to prepare your institution’s faculty to understand their learners’ needs. To identify learning objectives, it’s a given that learners have to be heard. Faculty members have to listen actively in a class full of students. They’ll have questions and curiosity inspired by a specific instructor’s teaching style. Familiarizing them with the various elements of a model is the first step to cohesive learning.


Prepare Your Faculty For The Now


Harappa’s Inspiring Faculty Program is designed for your institution’s Rockstar faculty. It helps them transform into confidants and coaches. Mentorship and support are what make students fall in love with their subjects. With our carefully curated program, your faculty will equip themselves with the right skills to maneuver a modern, online classroom. Our flagship program designed for institutions will help them at the cusp of their careers, to meet the evolving needs of today.

Customized training models help learners with targeted needs. Our program will arm your aspirational faculty with the toolkit to develop their own training models. They’ll be able to navigate demanding mandates and challenging behaviors with must-have Thrive Skills like Active Listening, Digital Proficiency and Driving Inclusion. Enroll your faculty today and reap the benefits of our impactful program that delivers transformational outcomes. 

Explore Harappa Diaries to learn more about topics such as What Is On-The-Job Training, ADDIE Model, Kirkpatrick Model and Off-The-job training that will help organizations tap into employee potential.

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